The concept ‘saturation’ has different definitions in the chemistry field. For the purposes of this paper, however, the author will focus more on surface processes of liquids and gas mixtures (Han & Alzamora, 2011). To this end, saturation refers to the degree of full occupation of a binding site. It is noted that saturation indices are used to measure the degree of this form of occupation. In water, when the binding sites are fully filled, saturation is said to be balanced. Failure to inhabit the sites creates an ‘appetite’ for water. In this case, the substance is said to have a ‘craving’ for the said water. It is also aggressive for the ions missing from it.

The right amount of saturation helps prevent precipitation of compounds. Precipitation creates the problem of clogging of pipes and cementing of filters, which reduces the efficiency of these elements. In this paper, the author will analyze different types of saturation indices. The researcher will focus more on Langelier index. The major differences between the indices will be reviewed. Finally, the measure that is mostly used will be highlighted.

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Types of Saturation Indices
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