Thermoelectric coolers are gadgets are made from junctions of two semiconductors of different materials usually stacked on top of each other (Anatychuk 1979, p.151). Thermoelectric coolers work with the Peltier effect, which is created by heat instability between the two semiconductor junctions (Vayner 1983, p.30). They consume electric current energy to transfer the heat against the heat gradient. One of the sides of the thermoelectric cooler junction absorbs heat energy when the electric current is passed while the other side dissipates energy in form of heat (Woodbury, Levinson, & Lewandowski 1995, p. 184). The main advantage offered by thermoelectric coolers over other conventional cooling apparatus is that their reliability is extremely high, their nature of being small is highly advantageous, and they are light in weight (Stockholm 1991, p. 228).
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