There is an immense correlation between the pathogenesis of babesiosis and the normal host immune response to infections and parasite-generated alterations in the membrane of the red blood cells (Vannier and Krause 2401). According to Hunfeld et al., the changes in the surface of the membranes of the red blood cells promote their clearance in the spleen (1227). In the mild instances of babesiosis, â€œinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor Î± [TNF-Î±] and interleukin-6) and adhesion molecules (e.g., E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1], and vascular-cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) are up-regulatedâ€ (Vannier and Krause 2401). The overproduction of cytokines amplifies the magnitude of the immune response thereby leading to severe babesiosis and its related difficulties such as high fever and immense pain.
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