The food we consume is broken down into several basic components during the process of digestion. Among those basic components, carbohydrates play a major role. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is the primary source of energy for our body cells. To supply energy to our body cells, glucose needs to get inside the body cells. Insulin is the hormone secreted by the pancreas which assists glucose to enter body cells and utilize it for energy. After the body cell requirement is fulfilled, the excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of Glycogen. When there is a problem with the secretion of insulin or without the presence of insulin, glucose cannot enter the body cells and remains in the blood. This leaves in the accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream, a condition called Type I diabetes. Our body’s immune system destroys insulin-secreting cells which eventually leads to low or no insulin secretion. Prolonged high blood glucose or blood sugar level will lead to several short and long term problems. There is also another classification of diabetes called Type II diabetes. In type II diabetes, instead of insulin secretion, the problem lies within the body cells. In type II diabetes the body cells stop responding to insulin. Thus, glucose cannot enter body cells and remain in the bloodstream.

The exact cause of type I diabetes is still unknown. Several researchers are undertaking researches to find it. However, it is generally believed that type I diabetes is caused by an autoimmune disease since it attacks and destroys the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes could be genetics and environmental factors.

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The general complications of type I diabetes mellitus include:

Nerve damage – Loss of sensation in the feet. This, in turn, led to high chances of injury and delayed wound healing.

Cardiovascular disease – Diabetes leads to high blood pressure, cholesterol, chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, and a higher risk of blood clots.

Kidney damage – Patients suffering from type I diabetes often end up in nephropathy. Nephropathy is a disease which damages the blood vessels in the kidney. This leads to kidney failure and heart diseases.

Eye damage – 80% of patients suffering from type I diabetes have damage in their retina causing retinopathy.

Skin problems – Blisters, rashes, bacterial, and fungal infections are common.

Symptoms of Diabetes
The symptoms of type I diabetes are:

Frequent urination

Sudden weight loss


Excess hunger

Excess thirst

Blurred vision

Heavy breathing

Mood swing

If the symptoms of type I diabetes are unchecked and untreated, it will lead to a further complication called Ketoacidosis. Its symptoms are:



Rapid breathing

Breath odor

Dry skin

Dry mouth

Increased risk of heart attack

Nerve damage

Kidney damage