The process of performing genetic engineering on animal species is very slow, time-consuming, and expensive. To produce genetically engineered animals, scientists have to first identify and isolate the genes they want to insert into the host animal. This is done by taking the gene from the cell or artificially synthesized it. If the donor’s gene is studied correctly, it can be found in the genes or genetic-library. This gene is then mixed with another genetic material, and also includes a promoter and a terminator region, and usually has a selectable marker. There are various methods present to insert the selected gene into the host genome. In animal’s genetic engineering, it is usually inserted by the use of micro injection, so that it can get injected through the nuclear envelope of the cell directly to the nucleus, or using viral vectors. The transgenic animal first produced was by injecting viral DNA into the embryos and then planting embryos into the female species. The researcher needs to wait for animals to reach the breeding stage, and further off spring are screened for the gene present in every cell, using methods like hybridization, PCR, and DNA sequencing.
Advantages of Genetic Engineering of Animals:
Transgenic Agricultural Animals: The transgenic agricultural animals are produced using genetic engineering to have the animals greater resistance against diseases, increases performance, and have greater reproductive qualities. Genetic engineering offers bovine growth hormones in cows for increased milk production.
Transgenic Animals Research Models: Genetic engineering is altering biomedical research at a fast rate, as it can produce animal models that express only required traits. This helps to have faster biomedical research, more accurate, less expensive, and at the cost of only a few animals. These genetically engineered animal models also help to research various diseases like AIDS, anemia, high cholesterol, cancer, hepatitis B, to name a few.
Production of Medicines: The transgenic animals are also used to produce various drugs and medicines, which is otherwise very expensive and challenging to replicate in the laboratory settings. Transgenic milk-producing animals have been engineered to produce a large amount of complex human proteins in their milk. Such proteins can be used in many diseases and have beneficial factors for patients with AIDS, depletion of bone marrow, emphysema, and various other lung issues.
Cloning Endangered Species: There are various estimations that various species of animals, birds, and aquatic creatures will vanish from the planet in the next few years. Genetic engineering technology provides an incredible solution for this, and we will able to save the endangered species from getting vanished from the earth. Animal genetic engineering promises to have many benefits, and it is estimated that the proportion of these transgenic animals will solve many modern-day challenges one day.