The hydrolysis of proteins in human cells occurs through a variety of enzymes. Generally, tissues synthesize amino acids into new proteins when needed. However, if the body is starving, or in a situation where there are excess amino acids, part of these amino acids will be pushed into the glucose catabolic pathways (Gropper and Smith 251). Before an amino acid enters the glucose metabolic pathway, its amino group is detached and transformed into ammonia. Amino acids are metabolized into both the ketogenic amino groups and the glucogenic amino groups (Grisham and Garrett 101). Through oxidation, both the ketogenic and non-essential amino acids can indirectly from fatty acids. Carbohydrates can also result from the oxidation of the non-essential glucogenic amino acids.

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