The formation of small sludge granules that have got their surface covered in bacterial aggregates begins. The absence of an enhancement from the support matrix leads to the creation of a selective environment by the flow condition. Microorganisms capable of attaching to each other are favored by this kind of environment as it supports their survival and proliferation. Biogas with high methane content is produced as a by-product. It can be tapped and utilized as a source of energy in generating electricity. This process requires adequate monitoring to make sure that the sludge blanket is not washed out hence, is maintained. Loss of the sludge blanket would make the process lose its desired effect. During the generation of electricity, heat is produced. Reheating of the digestion tanks is made possible by the reuse of generated heat (Khopkar, 2004).

Khopkar (2004) has indicated two main anaerobic bacteria involved in this anaerobic process, namely:

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  1. Acetic acid-forming bacteria are known as acetogenins.
  2. Methane-forming bacteria are known as methanogens.