In cellular response leading to the kidney graft rejection, the main cells that are involved are the CD4+ helper T cells. The recognition of the antigen-MHC complex by the naïve T cells causes the T cells to be activated by the dendritic cells. In this process, the CD28 is costimulated with CD80 or CD86 that is present on antigen presenting cells. This response is also exacerbated if costimulation occurs through CD40 and CD154. If the response involves Th1 cells (which secretes IL-2, TFN-β and IFN-Y), a cellular immune response ensues while a humoral immune response ensues if Th2 (secrets, IL4-6, IL10and IL13) cells are involved.

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T-Cell Mediated Kidney Allograft Rejection
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