Causes and Types of Ovarian Cancer
It is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of any cancer, and ovarian cancer is no different. It can be genetically inherited or acquired. The risk of ovarian cancer is present but aggravating it into cancer depends upon several environmental or genetic factors. There are about 30 types of ovarian cancer and are classified based on the cells they initiate in.

Epithelial Cell Ovarian Cancers: When cancer begins in the epithelial cells present in the ovary lining, it is epithelial cell carcinoma. It is a common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for more than 85% of ovarian cancer in women. They are invasive, however, their symptoms are difficult to detect, therefore, the cancer is detected in its later stages and causes death.

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Germ Cell Ovarian Cancers: This is an uncommon type of cancer and affects the germ cells, that is, the cells that are responsible for making eggs. Germ cell ovarian cancers spread quickly and are usually benign. However, sometimes the tumors can release human chorionic gonadotropin and show positive for pregnancy. It affects the young adolescent and women age group.

Stromal Cell Cancers: Cells with stromal cancer can produce hormones similar to the ovary, such as estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone. They are also uncommon, like germ cell ovarian cancers but grow at a slow pace. The increase of the hormones of the ovary leads to excess acne, facial hair, and unusual uterine bleeding. These symptoms make stromal cancer easily detectable.

Symptoms and Risks of Ovarian Cancer
The symptoms of some ovarian cancers are not easily noticed, while others can easily be detected. Even though the symptoms are similar to menstrual side effects, they persist for longer, making them identifiable. Unfortunately, a few symptoms are difficult to detect.

Bloating in the stomach persistently

Unable to eat food due to constantly feeling satisfied

Increase in frequency of urination

Pain in the lower abdominal region

Pain in the lower back

Discomfort during coitus



Irregular menstrual cycle

Change in weight (loss or gain)

Bleeding of the vagina that lasts for sometime


Increase in facial hair

Risk factors for ovarian cancer are as follows:

Age: According to the survey, women over the age of 60 are likely to increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

Genetic Changes: The presence of genes BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, RAD51C, and RAD51D, is a risk of ovarian cancer. These genes are passed down from the parents to the offspring. These genes are at risk of other disorders like Lynch syndrome and breast cancer too.

Obesity: It is observed that obesity is a quite common factor in people diagnosed with ovarian cancer.

Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy: Drugs used to control menopause side effects can induce ovarian cancer in the female.

Menarche and Menopause Age: Females who had early menarche or late menopause are known to be at risk of ovarian cancer.

Pregnancy: Bearing children decreases the risk of ovarian cancer; similarly, no pregnancy ups the risk of cancer.