Various agencies are created under EPCA to overcome the problem of the supply of petro products. They are as follows:
Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR):
According to EPCA, a crude oil reserve of up to one billion barrels must be established as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Nearby salt domes (which could be used for petroleum storage) and existing refineries and distribution terminals influenced the selection of storage locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast. In June 1977, construction on the buildings got underway. On July 21, 1977, oil was first delivered to SPR. As of 2013, the country’s crude oil reserves amounted to about 696 million barrels.
2. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÃ‰):
Beginning with the 1978 model year, EPCA imposed corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) requirements for automobiles (especially for passenger vehicles). Hence, to meet these criteria, a manufacturer’s fleet had to have an average fuel efficiency of 25% (weighted by sales). It also gave authority to set fuel efficiency requirements for many other vehicles to the secretary of transportation under EPCA (e.g., light trucks, SUVs, etc.).
From 1990 to 2010, the CAFE requirement stayed at 27.5 miles a gallon. It was signed by the president, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which increased fuel consumption in cars, trucks, and SUVs until 2030. The law was signed into effect in 2007. This new set of requirements was agreed upon by the federal government, state governments, and the automobile industry in 2009. 3. Ban on Crude Oil Export:
The EPCA also banned the export of U.S. oil products from avoiding future interruptions in oil production (such as those created by the 1973-1974 oil embargo). Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz said in May 2014 that the ban might be removed. An upcoming removal of the ban was discussed a month earlier in a House subcommittee meeting.
For the purchase of heavy and sour oil from Mexico in June 2015, the Obama administration approved exporting sweet and light crude oils. Removing the ban, according to environmentalists, would lead to increased oil sales, drilling, and production, with all of the accompanying environmental implications, such as higher emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. On the other hand, Congress ended the 41-year-old ban on the sale of marijuana on December 18, 2015. For a $500 million contribution to the U.N. Green Climate Fund and tax incentives for wind and solar power generation, republicans agreed to lift the prohibition. They also agreed not to block such contributions.
Objectives of Energy Policy and Conservation Act
The Energy Policy and Conservation Act is prepared by the Federal and State after many meetings, and the minutes of the meeting reveals that one should only achieve if the below-mentioned objective is achieved, and they are as follows:
Assist with energy efficiency and conservation by providing various services.
Give national energy conservation efforts a framework and strategy.
Work with shareholders to develop energy-efficiency policies and programs.
Plan and develop a framework that will validate individual’s measurements and track national and local energy efficiency gains.
Maximize Energy Conservation Act implementation via global, bilateral, and private sector cooperation.
Demonstrate a public-private collaboration for delivering energy efficiency.
Improve the country’s energy efficiency.
To design, manage, and implement energy-saving initiatives following the Energy Conservation Act.
Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation: Distinction
Even though the terms are frequently used interchangeably, there is a little but critical distinction between energy efficiency and energy conservation that should not be overlooked. An energy-efficient instrument uses less energy to do the same job or function as a more traditional, high-energy tool. Energy conservation may be defined as any habit or intentional activity that reduces the amount of energy used.
These terms may seem the same whenever it comes to energy, yet their meanings could be different. Energy conservation is changing habits and behaviors to use much less energy. On the other hand, energy efficiency depends on cutting-edge technology that uses less energy to do the same or equivalent tasks as a comparable item.
In contrast to energy efficiency, which calls for a change in the technology used daily, conservation is a deliberate effort that necessitates a shift in how a person behaves or acts.