Iron deficiency anemia is a common illness in developing countries, and it has effectively become a global health issue. Pregnancy-induced anemia is caused most commonly by iron deficiency, which affects both infants and young children. Most pregnant women do not get enough iron during their pregnancy. Therefore, the iron levels of a pregnant woman are likely to determine the effect of iron on her baby or young child. According to a recent written survey, approximately 52% of pregnant women had iron deficiency. In addition, women ignore what they eat during their pregnancy. Therefore, the failure of a pregnant lady to gain weight is a sign of an iron deficiency. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency anemia. Hemoglobin levels significantly impact anemia, which can change due to various factors such as age, gender, and socioeconomic situation. Males having hemoglobin levels less than 12 grams per deciliter (g/dL) and females with hemoglobin levels less than 11 g/dL are considered anemic. When the hemoglobin level falls below 11 g/dL during pregnancy, this is considered abnormal. When anemia is discovered, it is critical to evaluate the possibility of iron deficiency. A low hemoglobin level is commonly associated with an abnormal red platelet count on a full blood count. It is common for iron deficiency to worsen over time while being undetected in the near term. When iron stores are completely exhausted, iron exposure to tissues is reduced, resulting in anemia.

Iron is essential in the metabolic cycle of tissue oxygenation. Iron absorption is enhanced in acidic conditions, which happens in the first and second parts of the small intestine. As a result, ascorbic acid enhances iron assimilation by combining acidic mixtures.

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Iron deficiency is common among pregnant women, which causes anemia in them. Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin which helps in oxygen utilization by the cells. Anemia is the condition of decreased hemoglobin concentration in the blood compared to the healthy individual of same-sex, age, and stage of pregnancy. Untreated anemia can affect the development o the brain of the fetus. The iron deficiency can be categorized into three stages:

Depletion of iron stores

Iron deficiency without anemia

Iron deficiency with anemia

Certain risk factors are related to the development of iron deficiency during

pregnancy are as follows:

Closely spaced pregnancies

Frequent vomiting

Not enough consumption of iron in the diet

History of anemia before pregnancy

Heavy menstrual flow before pregnancy