Oral microbial floras constitute microorganisms that are found in the buccal cavity that may not necessarily cause harm to the human being. These organisms make up the normal microbial flora of the mouth. Because these organisms have to compete for food resources, some in the process end upon being eliminated due to competition. This element of competition may eventually prove advantageous when a pathogenic microbe is eliminated in the process. However, some microorganisms found in the mouth may end up causing undesired effects like dental caries, gingivitis and pyorrhea. These effects are mainly caused when there is an imbalance in the existence of the microbes colonizing the mouth cavity. This imbalance is characterized by the production of acids. These acidic compounds damage the gums and the teeth. The microbes can adhere to the surface of the epithelial cells, tongue, and the enamel. Microbes that colonize the surface of the tooth are commonly known as dental plaque. The microbes that stick on the surface of the epithelial cells and the tooth do so with the aid of a biofilm. Bacterial genera that are known as the primary colonizers comprise Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Neisseria, and Vellionella. Secondary microbes include Prevotella and Fusobacterium spp. Normal microbial flora in the mouth cavity is always at equilibrium. The by-products of growth of some organisms are quite often used by other organisms as nutrients for growth. Some bacteria’s metabolic activities make use of oxygen thereby creating conducive environment for growth of anaerobic bacteria. However, the balance may break down in case the nutrients are higher in sugar content. The bacteria that adhere to surfaces end up lowering the pH of the medium. This creates a favorable environment for acid-loving bacteria growth.

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