Adaptive changes in muscle tissue are induced by physical exercise. These alterations are limited to the working muscles, and their size is determined by the exercise regimen’s characteristics, for example, duration and intensity. Higher mitochondrial and glycogen concentrations are the most noticeable alterations. There are significant variations in metabolism throughout intense exercise, with fat contributing more to the overall metabolism throughout the supramaximal activity. This leads to the glycogen reserves being conserved, increasing total exercise ability. This enhanced fat utilization during maximal exercise directly correlates to increases in mitochondrial density in muscle rather than variations in whole body maximum oxygen absorption.
The increased durability capacity following endurance exercise is due to a combination of a higher contribution of lipids to metabolism and a raised quantity of stored glycogen. The increased fat utilization exercise mechanism is because of the higher proportion of mitochondria; the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) route is more tightly controlled. The impact of increased physical exercise on muscle tissue growth and strength is the consequence of pre-existing fiber hypertrophy or hyperplasia.
Three forms of exercise that affect the muscles of an individual are discussed as follows:
Aerobic Exercise: It is the most frequent type of exercise which most individuals engage in. This can be of lower or higher intensity, and this can last for a short or long time; however, the important thing would be that the muscles utilize more oxygen to create more energy, which allows them to flex. When the time or intensity of an activity exceeds the capacity of the muscles’ oxygen absorption, the exercise is referred to as “anaerobic”. Consistent aerobic exercise has the primary impact of “training” skeletal muscles to enhance their capacity to utilize oxygen and the effectiveness with which is used as energy sources like lipids.
There is an increase in blood pressure to muscle fibers which have been prepared to utilize aerobic exercise, an increase in the number of stored energies like fat and glucose, which are kept in the muscle, as well as an enhancement in proteins which are needed to effectively use such energy reserves in muscles that have been prepared using aerobic exercise.
There is a rise in the number of mitochondria in muscle, the specialized portion of cells wherein lipid and carbohydrate oxidation occur. This process converts the energy that humans consume from food into energy that human cells can utilize.
Resistance Exercise: Resistance training is essential for developing or repairing muscle mass in many people. This comprises elderly people who might advantage from a well-designed resistance exercise regimen.
In general, the procedures include gradually raising the muscle’s force production with progressive weight increases. The muscle adapts throughout this procedure, and the muscular fibers expand in width, leading to an increase in strength and mass. Because the activity is generally anaerobic, the increases in energy use efficiencies that happen with aerobic exercise are not visible. Still, there is an indication that the muscles can improve their anaerobic metabolism.
Since the muscle increases in size, the performance may be changed by the person’s diet, and several effective resistance training programs incorporate dietary protein consumption adjustments.
Eccentric Exercise: Eccentric contraction is described as the movement of working muscles extending under stress, such as the action on the biceps muscle as a large load is gradually reduced.
Eccentric contractions are common in regular muscular activity; however, this type of contraction may be highly harmful to the muscle; thus, many studies have been done on it.