Kidney allograft rejection is a common pathological condition that is associated with allograft nephropathy and it is a cause of concern for clinicians. The mechanism of rejection is rather complicated and the factors that are involved in the rejection process and yet to be fully unearthed. However, several explanations have so far been given regarding renal allograft rejection and morphological changes involved.

According to Baboolal et al (2002), chronic allograft nephropathy which leads to allograft rejection is a product of both recipient and donor-related factors. These authors also highlight that renal allograft failure has been occurring at a rate of up to 4 percent in a year following the first year of transplantation regardless of use of immunosuppressive medication used to counter acute rejection. It is however notable that there has been a slight improvement in the success of kidney transplantation but the increase has not been sufficient. A number of clinical characteristics present in kidney allograft failure which undoubtedly alter the morphology of the kidney.

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It is also notable that kidney allograft rejection is either humoral or cell-mediated and is further classified as hyperacute, acute and chronic allograft rejection (McKay & Steinberg, 2010). This paper examines the morphology exhibited in kidney allograft failure and further explores the mechanism involved in renal allograft rejection. A number of explanations are given relating to the available knowledge on renal allograft failure, many of which will be considered in this paper.