With regard to the application of smart and functional materials, these alloys are produced and required in different forms. Therefore, there are different methods are applied for processing and production of shape-memory alloys. Apart from this, the manufacturer generates different forms and shape-memory characteristics and properties (Srivatsan 43). Hence, some of the methods apply a combination of Ni and Ti produce the alloys, others use the powder of these chemical powders for further synthesis. In whole, the production process may imply casting methods, thin film and metal foam methods and powder metallurgy processes (Srivatsan). The alternative ways for ingot metallurgy have been chosen to solve the problems during such processes as melting and machining. Alloy process techniques, hence, involve vacuum induction melting, which is used from SMA production in large quantities for commercial application. Electron beam re-melting, that is used to manufacture super ingots, which is provides the advantage of carbon elimination from the alloy, as the melting is carried out in a copper crucible (Strivatsan 45). Other production methods involve solid-state metallurgy method, foam, and film manufacturing.
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