Limited literatures have examined the development and application of a high-resolution thin-film probe. Research conducted by Sato, Ogiwara, and Suzuki reveal that to realise high-resolution resistance measurement, there is need to develop four points with pitch of 0.1nm. Technique of development of four-point probe needs measurement with spatial resolution where this has been described as powerful tool for the sheet resistance. .
On the other hand Kanda, Jurosawa, and Higuchi argue that making high resolution with more than 0.5mm with low contact force under 500 nN has advantageous for measuring nanostructure or micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Typically, research has revealed that longitudinally vibrating probe can enlarges the amplitude at the contact point. However, resolution can depend on sensitivity and the noise level where reduction of noise in the circuit can have impact on operational amplifier, and possibility of obtaining higher resolution of 02 nm. .