Appetite control and food intake:
In the energy balance model, the appetite fits in the regulation of weight. However, it does not mean that regulating the energy balance or the molecular mechanism can alter the outcome of appetite control. Appetite or the food intake involves several factors of eating patterns like the size of the eating portion, frequency of eating, and type of food that is consumed like the low-fat foods, high-fat foods, or energy-dense food. This also includes variability, palatability, and routine diet. All of these are regulated by molecular mechanisms happening in the brain in collaboration with the sensory system and the gastrointestinal system. Involuntary regulation of the appetite has been studied for its involvement in obesity and weight gain. However, there was no clear pattern There is certain involuntary regulation causing the urge to overeat and thereby create more energy expenditure.
Involuntary Regulatory Signals and Food Intake:
The control of the food intake can be based on the interactions and the network that is present as a part of the psychobiological system. This entire system can be understood on three levels These are the psychological events like hunger perception, hedonic sensations, cravings, and behavioral response like micronutrient intake, liking snacks and meals, etc. This is the first level of understanding. The second level of understanding is to learn about the involuntary regulation of the metabolism and involvement of peripheral physiology. This phase involves the understanding of the interaction of the neurotransmitters in the brain and also the interaction of the different metabolic processes. The third level of the process is the understanding of the synchronous operation of all these events that are reflected in the intake of food. When any of the above regulations is defective or is desynchronized, there will be a problem in food intake leading to eating disorders and disrupted nutrition. Several nerve events stimulate and mediate food intake and behavior. However, this involves the response from the entire peripheral and the nervous system. Several neurochemical activities mediate the brain to release chemicals that can motivate or demotivate a person from consuming foods.
Tonic and episodic regulatory signals:
There are different regulatory signals involved in appetite control. Separation has been created between the long-term and short-term food intake regulation. However, the episodic and the tonic regulatory signals remain the same for both food intake functions. All the inhibitory signals are categorized as episodic signals and this is activated when there are episodes of eating exhibited by the person. This regulatory signal is associated with the signaling of satiety and is generated according to the pattern of eating of the individual. Tonic signals develop from the storage tissues such as the adipose tissues and exert a tonic pressure on the appetite expression. These signals are needed to induce the appetite and stimulate an intense response in the behavioral changes. These two signals are present in the brain in the form of a network and control appetite expression.
Satiety cascade and signals for appetite control:
One of the most essential episodic signals is those that are present in the physiological events that stimulate food ingestion. They immediately generate an inhibitory response so that the person stops eating and then prevents the person from overeating the consequent time of occurrence. Therefore, these signals are known as satiety signals. The number and varieties of signals involved in stopping the meal and also preventing further food intake can be explained using a cascade of events that led to the feeling of satiety. This is referred to as a complex mechanism that terminates the eating and hunger suppression and also inhibits further consumption of food intake. It can coordinate with the eating behavior of a person to control the frequency and portion of the food intake.