Gel electrophoresis, on the other hand, refers to a technique used for the purposes of separating and analyzing macromolecules. In addition to the macromolecules, the technique is used to separate and analyze macro fragments.4 A set of criteria informs the separation of these macromolecules. For example, the separation may be carried out on the basis of the macromolecule’s size, as well as the charge that they contain. A number of macromolecules are analyzed using this technique. They include DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and proteins.

The technique, for instance, plays an important role in the separation of DNA fragments from a population based on their length.4[225] In most cases, an electric field is applied on the target macromolecule. The aim is to move molecules with a negative charge. The molecules are moved through an easily cast gel. The shorter molecules are observed to move faster than the longer ones. As a result of this difference in speed, the former move further compared to the latter. The reason is that the shorter molecules find it easy to pass through the spaces in the gel.

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