“Gene amplification and PCR provide species-specific detection with high sensitivity, though the process is arduous, as it requires the extraction of DNA or RNA from microbial cells” (Yamaguchi, Ohba and Nasu 631). According to Yamaguchi, Ohba, and Nasu, flow cytometry is used in the rapid identification of bacteria in milk through methods such as “total bacterial counts, detection of pseudomonas cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and detection of respiring Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells by double staining with Fluorescein Isothiocyanate -labeled antibody and 5-cyano-2, 3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride”. Though the flow cytometry technique is fast, responsive, and consistent, the equipment is expensive, and its operation is complex for the untrained personnel (Yamaguchi, Ohba, and Nasu 632)

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