Developmental issues: Problems with development congenital abnormalities are not usually congenital anomalies.
Specific language impediment
Cerebral palsy, neurological disorder.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
Disorders of the genome
Heart defects: Heart abnormalities are the most frequent congenital anomalies. Most have no apparent cause, although if a pregnant woman has diabetes or smokes throughout her pregnancy, the chances of the child having defects might increase. Cleft lip or palate: This condition can have an impact on speech, hearing, and appetite. The majority of newborns with this structural abnormality will require surgery within the first few months of life. Stomach and gut anomalies: The abdominal wall does not entirely shut in gastroschisis, allowing the colon to push out and grow outside the body. Babies with this defect will have no protective sac around the organs. Limb reduction: Sometimes, a limb may not fully develop in the pregnancy. This structural abnormality, known as limb reduction, occurs when a limb is smaller than expected or is absent entirely.
Causes of birth defects
Birth malformations can arise at any stage of the pregnancy. The majority of birth abnormalities arise in the first 13 weeks of pregnancy. It is a critical stage of development. Some birth abnormalities, however, arise later in pregnancy. Tissues and organs continue to develop during the latter 6 months of pregnancy – the cause of some birth abnormalities, such as fetal alcohol syndrome. However, what causes the majority of birth abnormalities is still a question. Nevertheless, it was believed that a complicated combination of causes leads to most birth abnormalities. These variables include deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) information passed down from parents, some actions, and environmental circumstances.
However, scientists do not entirely understand how these variables may interact to produce birth abnormalities. Previous research has shown many factors that lead to birth abnormalities. Some of the factors that may raise the likelihood of having a kid with a congenital disability are:
Smoking, alcohol consumption, and consumption of “street” drugs during pregnancy.
Consumption of certain medicines such as isotretinoin, a drug used in acne treatment might be the reason for some congenital disabilities.
Functional or developmental birth defects
Functional or developmental congenital disabilities are associated with the function of the physical component or system. Some of the disabilities are:
Sensory issues – Visual issues and hearing loss, such as deafness or blindness.
Diseases of the metabolism – These entail difficulties with specific chemical processes in the body, such as the body’s capacity to eliminate waste or dangerous substances. For example, phenylketonuria and hypothyroidism are two prevalent metabolic diseases.
Neural development – Intellectual and developmental impairments, behavioral issues, speech or language challenges, seizures, and mobility problems are examples of these. Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Down syndrome are examples of congenital abnormalities of the neurological system.
Disorders of degeneration – These are disorders that may not be visible at birth but cause one or more elements of health to deteriorate over time. For example, muscular dystrophy and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, which caused issues with the neurological system and the adrenal glands and were the subject of the film “Lorenzo’s Oil,” are two examples of degenerative diseases. In addition, some birth abnormalities impact several body parts or systems, resulting in structural and functional issues.
This material focuses on structural birth abnormalities, including their causes, prevention, and treatment.