Through the process of catalysis, fuel cell works to separate the reactant fuel components into protons and electrons and hence converting the electrons into electrical energy when they pass through the circuit. The catalyst comprise of platinum metal or alloy. Through another process the electrons are forced back in thus combining with the protons to produce a waste water and carbon dioxide.
An ordinary fuel cell produces a voltage of a bout 0.6V to 0.7 V of related load (Galen, 2001). To attain a desired amount of energy the fuel cells can be arranged either in series or parallel circuits. Whereas series circuit yield more amount of energy, the parallel arrangement allows a stronger current to be drawn â€“ fuel set back (Galen, 2001).
In the beginning the use of fuel cell was constrained to short distances but due to economic growth and the have a low cost, carbon dioxide free transport system accelerated the need for fuel cell (Brain, 2003).
All cell have both positively and negatively charged electrodes and an electrolyte sandwiched between them, they can achieve an efficiency of 40 to 70 percent and thus making them much ore efficient than the internal combustion engines. Although high efficiency means more power being drawn from the cell, the more the power drawn the less the life span of the fuel cell (Brandsher, 2002).