1. Carbohydrates: The carbohydrates are concerned with energy production and these substances are generated in photosynthetic organisms. These organisms employ a process called photosynthesis for mediating the synthesis of carbohydrates from inorganic molecules such as water and carbon dioxide. The carbohydrates are grouped as monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. The monosaccharides include glucose and fructose and the disaccharides include lactose and sucrose. The important polysaccharides in the body include glycogen and starch.

Formation of Carbohydrates:

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The carbohydrates such as the monomeric form of glucose are generated by the process of photosynthesis employed by the organism with chlorophyll. This photo-pigment resides in the chloroplast and the exposure to the sunlight triggers the excitation of electrons for the initiation of photosynthesis. The excited electrons aids in the formation of energy molecules for powering the conversion of the inorganic carbon dioxide molecule into organic glucose monomers. The electrons are initially conveyed from the water molecule and the formed glucose is stored in the form of starch in the plant body. The glucose monomers are conveyed sucrose for aiding in transportation through the phloem cells throughout the plant body. The polymerization of glucose monomers aids in the formation of complex sugars such as cellulose and starch.

The polymerization of glucose is carried out by the enzyme cellulose synthase for the formation of cellulose and the enzyme starch synthase mediates the formation of the starch out of glucose monomers in the plant.

The polymerization reaction mediated by the enzyme glycogen synthase mediates the formation of glycogen from the glucose molecules in the animals.

2. Lipids: The lipids are associated with the long-term deposition of energy and function as the structural units of the cell membrane of the living cells. The hydrophobic nature of the lipids in the cell membrane aids them to restrict the lipids in the cell membrane aids them to restrict the entry of polar substances into the cell. The lipids are grouped as monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids.

Formation of Lipids:

The lipids are constructed from the carbohydrates consumed as a nutritional supplement. The triglycerides are generated from the excess amount of carbohydrates deposited in the body. Lipogenesis is employed for the synthesis of triglycerides from the esterification of the fatty acids. The acetyl-CoA is associated with the formation of the monomeric fatty caids. The fatty acid synthases mediate the generation of fatty acids. The triglycerides generated from the fatty acids are accumulate3d in the liver.

The proteins are constructed from the polymerization reaction on the amino acid monomer and the generation of the protein takes place in the ribosome of the cell. The information for the generation of protein in the body is stored in the deoxyribonucleic acids.