Importance of minerals in humans:
There are approximately 20 minerals that are required for the human body to perform biological and physiological functions.

The most common elements include nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon that makeup about 96% of the human body’s weight.

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Calcium makes up 920-1200 grams of adult body weight, with bones and teeth comprising 99 percent of it. This is around 1.5% of the weight in the human body.

Phosphorus is about 2/3 of calcium and accounts for about 1% of the body weight of a person.

The other main minerals (chlorine, potassium, sodium, sulfur, and magnesium) make up just about 0.85 percent of the body’s weight.

Types of minerals:
The human body requires many essential minerals. These essential minerals are divided into two types:

1. Macrominerals

2. Microminerals

A balanced diet usually provides all required minerals for the body.

Macrominerals: Macrominerals are also known as major minerals that are required for the functioning of the body. Some of the major minerals are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, chloride, and sulfur.

Sodium:

• Sodium is required for fluid balance, the transmission of nerve signals, and the contraction of muscles.

• The common sources of sodium are soy sauce, and table salt.

Potassium:

• Potassium is also needed for body fluid balance and muscle contraction.

• The common sources of potassium are table salt, banana, meat, and whole grains.

Calcium:

• Calcium is essential for teeth, bones, regulating blood pressure, muscle relaxation, and clotting of blood.

• Some of the sources of calcium are milk and milk products, bony fishes, green leafy vegetables, and legumes.

Magnesium:

• Magnesium is important for protein production, muscle relaxation, and contraction, seen in bones and nerve signal transmission.

• Some sources of magnesium are nuts, green leafy vegetables, chocolates, and seafood.

Chloride:

• Chloride is a macromineral essential for fluid balance and acid secretion in the stomach.

• Some important sources of chloride are table salt, bread, vegetables, and soya sauce.