Hyperandrogenism may results in following physical and physiological changes. They are excessive secretion of sebum by sebaceous glands results in oily skin (Seborrhea), Acne in face, growth of lumps in armpits or groin Hidradenitis excessive hair growth in femaleâ€™s face, chest (Hirsutism), alopecia, balding in females like that of males, menstruation problems, appearance of masculine features, hoarse male voice in females, enlargement of clitoris, virilization, infertility, and obesity.
Effects of Hyperandrogenism in Women:
Hyperandrogenism in women is harmful if untreated. This is associated hypertension, arrest of menstruation, obesity and problems with ovulation which may results in infertility. Hyperandrogenism also leads to type 2 diabetes and increased blood cholesterol level. It may be the reason for social anxiety and depression in adolescent people and influence many physiological activities. Due to paired effect of obesity and hirsutism, it make them to feel depressed.
There is no significant effect on males by hypersecretion of androgens. Some studies reveal that excessive secretion of testosterone gives uncharacteristic aggression, but there is no significant physiological or behavioral change like that in females. We need further researches to get more about the effects of hyperandrogenism in males.
Hyperandrogenism in Female Athletes:
The International Association of Athletics Federations has released some rule and regulations known as hyperandrogenism regulations/eligibility regulations for the female classification followed by the case of Caster Semenya who is athlete has 5-alpha reductase deficiency restrict the entry of female athletes with XY, DSD and testes in competitions. If they have hypersecretion due to PCOS it is not a matter.
Tests to Confirm Hyperandrogenism:
Following tests are useful to diagnose hyperandrogenism: Hormone tests: Testing and analyzing the level of following hormones in circulating fluid such as follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, prolactin, testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, sex hormone binding globulin proteins and thyroid secretions are helpful to know the hyperandrogenism. High level of testosterone in females shows some issues in ovaries and slightly elevated testosterone is indicating PCOS or tumor growth in ovaries. Ultrasound scan of the pelvic region helps to identify and evaluate cysts in ovaries. If a woman is recommended to test her circulating level of androgen it better to give sample at fasting during the first 3 days of menstruation and it is advised to avoid consumption of oral contraceptives at least for six weeks.