The period betwe discovery en 1860 and 1919 may be aptly called the first Golden Age of Microbiology. The “age” was preceded by a discovery era when Anton van Leeuwenhoek proclaimed to be the discoverer of the microbial world, discovered around 1676 tiny microbes he called animalcules. He found them in first rainwater, pond water, teeth cavities, and many other specimens. He deposited his sketches of the rod, spherical and spiral forms of “animalcules” which we now know as bacteria to Royal Society of London communications. Francesco Redi and others around the 1600s had a belief in spontaneous generation or abiogenesis doctrine whereby living beings were claimed to be originated from nonliving matter. An example was maggots originating from decaying meat kept in open jars. Subsequently, John Needham discovered animalcules in mutton. However, Lazzaro Spallanzani disproved the previous doctrine in which boiled samples in heated glass sealed jar did not show any animalcule and this finding was extended by Nicholas Appert who could preserve soups, etc. by heating in thick champagne bottles.

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