The patterns of residential areas have dramatically developed through three ways, starting from central business district “CBD” then into old urban areas and finally, it ends up with the new urban areas or modern urban areas. The first pattern is a central business district, in this pattern the shape has been affected by the natural topography of the city of Makkah. As you notice from the map of Makkah the surrounded areas of the interior city go with contour lines as well as its narrow roads and streets. It has been drawn as an organic shape that has involved the thoughts of people as they develop these streets to create a lovely pedestrians environment. However, this organic shape has led to climate change as the local materials have been used in buildings such as mud and wood.

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