The other way that fusion proteins can be formed is through chimeric mutation. The process in which this mutation occurs is known as chromosome translocation. This is a naturally occurring process caused by non homologous chromosomes reconfiguring themselves (Khan & Park, 2008). A fusion is then formed when the two or more genes combine. This is most profound in cancer. This occurrence can be detected by cytogenetic of the cells affected. Translocations can either be balanced or unbalanced. When balanced there is exchange that is in consequential to the gene code but for unbalanced it leads to the missing of some genes thus a chromosome imbalance (Nekton, 1989).

There are two types of translocations (Liu, 1995).

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Reciprocal (non Robertsonian) this translocation occurs when there is exchange of materials between chromosomes that are non homologous. This kind of translocation is not harmful. This is normally found in prenatal diagnosis. At times carries of balanced translocations react with those unbalanced translocations. This may lead to miscarriages or abnormality in newborns (Kitcher, 2007).

Robertsonian translocation involves the combining of two or more chromosomes. This happens at the centromere region which leads to the loss of a short arm. The chromosomes are acrocentric. The rearrangement results in a karyotype. Newborns have a have translocations. They occur at chromosomes 13 and 14 (Vicente, 2004).

Translocations are known to cause several diseases in human beings:

  • Cancer
  • Infertility
  • Down syndrome


This paper has so far analyzed the making of fusion tags and their future use in our day to day lives. Fusion tags can be used in different applications, thus enhancing and benefiting the way bodily processes are carried out (Higuchi, 1988).