By definition, photosynthesis is a process whereby light energy (of blue and red wavelength) is converted to chemical energy in the presence of CO2 and water. This process occurs in plants and green algae which eventuate in sugar formation. Basically, the site of photosynthesis in plants is at the chloroplast which contains chlorophyll (apparently green pigment) vital in absorbing light energy.

Primarily, the chemical reaction that happens in the chlorophyll is typified by the equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2. However, this process is more multifaceted than what meets the eye for it involves two processes: the light and dark reactions. The light reaction “happens at the thylakoid membrane, and it serves to convert light into chemical energy” (Audesirk & Byers, 2008). This energy is then passed onto central chlorophyll where photosynthesis happens to store the energy as ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The dark reaction, which happens devoid of light in the stroma, utilizes CO2 and ATP to form sugars (glucose) in what is referred to as the Calvin Cycle (Fig. 1)

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