Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory postulates that human development is the sum of factors of bioecological systems that are in an environment that one lives. The theory elucidates how bioecological systems influence human development throughout one’s lifespan, as it is extensively applicable in developmental psychology. Developmental psychology majorly entails the study of children’s behavior under strange circumstances and their interaction with adults. The theory views human development in the context of relationships that exist in bioecological systems of one’s environment. Bronfenbrenner (1994) argues that, human development occurs progressively through complex and reciprocal interactions between an individual and people, and objects and symbols that are in a given immediate environment (p.37). For interactions to be effective, they must be enduring and should occur in the immediate environment to form proximal processes that significantly influence human development. The proximal process exists in bioecological systems made of five spheres, namely microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. This essay describes four spheres of bioecological systems viz. microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem, and analyzes the past and present biopsychosocial factors that influence human development.

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