According to the gold model of autologous bone graft, the model contracted bone implant must be “osteoinductive, osteoconductive and osteogenic” (Laurencin et al. 2006, p. 52). Osteoinductive scaffolds provide spatial, bio-chemical, and physical stimuli to instigate stem cells or progenitor cells towards osteoblastic family. Osteoconductivity needs biocompatible implants to encourage the attachment, migration, survival, and supply of osteogenic cells. Osteogenic implants comprise of progenitor or osteogenic stem cells for bone redevelopment.

To satisfy these criteria, bone tissue reconstruction uses a biomimetic approach which may comprise biomaterial supports, physical and biochemical stimuli, vascularization, stem cells, and recapitulating the ordered construction of original ECM to produce functional bone tissues. Such biomimetic efforts comprise selecting bio-materials within the original bone structure, constructing poly-scale models in scaffold particularly with nanoscale elements, and integrating growth factors, stem cells and/or vascularization to offer a bio-mimetic opening for instigating bone reconstruction and regeneration. This review focuses on mirroring three-dimensional organization of bone construction with tissue modelling at the nano-phase.

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