There are two types of alkalosis, namely respiratory alkalosis or metabolic alkalosis. Our blood is a buffer solution made up of both acid and base substances. The pH of human blood is 7.4 which is slightly alkaline. A decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the blood and a continuous increase of bicarbonate in the blood are the main reasons for it. Loss of hydrogen ions happens mainly because of loss in the gastric region by pyloric stenosis, prolonged chloro diarrhea, and severe gastric aspiration. An increase in bicarbonate ion concentration occurs due to excessive intake of bicarbonates or alkali foods/chemicals (E.g. milk-alkali syndrome). Sometimes bicarbonate reabsorption in kidneys will be increased this is also the main reason for metabolic alkalosis (e.g. Cushing syndrome, hyperaldosteronism). Some genetic disorders are also the reason for metabolic alkalosis. They are bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, Liddle syndrome, glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism, and apparent mineralocorticoid disorder.
Respiratory alkalosis occurs due to a reduction in carbon dioxide levels in our blood. Due to alveolar hyperventilation PCO2 in arteries may be decreased in turn it increases bicarbonate ion concentration results in pH change. Some cause for this condition is:
Very high fever
Overdose of salicylate
Prolonged liver disease
Disorders of lungs
Aspirin poisoning. Low CO2 â€“ Some patients who are in the coma stage need mechanical ventilation. In this condition, their bodily production of CO2 will be lowered and leads to alkalosis. Excess loss of CO2 â€“ Even though CO2 production is normal loss will be higher. For example; psychogenic hyperventilation and salicylate overdose.
Excessive bicarbonate ions in the blood are the main reason for metabolic alkalosis. Another important reason for this condition is increased tubular reabsorption due to kidney diseases. Some other reasons are:
overuse of diuretics leads to electrolyte
the adrenal disease which influence the mineralocorticoids production
high-level accidental ingestion of bicarbonate, (baking soda)
overuse of laxatives
loss of stomach acids. Chloride-responsive alkalosis: Because of vomiting or any other dehydration method body loss of hydrogen ions. Chloride-resistant alkalosis: Too much bicarbonate ions retain in body fluid. Hypochloremic alkalosis: It takes place due to the continuous decrease of chloride in body fluids. It may be because of prolonged vomiting or sweating. Chloride is an essential electrolyte in digestive fluids that helps to maintain fluid balance. Hypokalemic alkalosis: It occurs due to reduced potassium levels. We got potassium through our food; less intake of potassium leads to potassium deficiency. The mineral potassium is very essential for the efficient functioning of the heart, kidney, muscles, digestive system, and nervous system. Kidney disease, excessive sweating, and diarrhea are just a few ways you can lose too much potassium.