One approach is to reduce the viscosity of fluids such as crude oils using physical methods. When catalytic substances are used in the refining process, a significant reduction in the amount of the pollutant gas is reduced in the process. In addition to that, features incorporated in the design of a component influence to a large extent the intensification process that directly limits the amount of polluting gases released into the atmosphere.
A radical approach to the design and layout of a plant bears a strong relationship to compaction heat exchanger approaches among other examples. In this approach, various units are integrated together to work as a single unit in the process to optimize operating space and other aspects of plant design. Process intensification methods can span hardware equipment and software methods. Hardware methods include ultrasonic reactors, monolithic reactors, and several others. On the other hand, that includes static exchangers, compact heat mixers, among several others. Software methods include malfunctional reactors that include reverse flow reactors, reactive separations among others.